- Research article
- Open Access
Inhibitory effects of proanthocyanidins from Ribes nigrum leaves on carrageenin acute inflammatory reactions induced in rats
© Garbacki et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2004
- Received: 14 May 2004
- Accepted: 21 October 2004
- Published: 21 October 2004
The anti-inflammatory effects of proanthocyanidins (PACs), isolated from blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) leaves, were analysed using carrageenin-induced paw oedema and carrageenin-induced pleurisy in rats.
Pretreatment of the animals with PACs (10, 30, 60 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced paw oedema induced by carrageenin in a dose and time-dependent manner. PACs also inhibited dose-dependently carrageenin-induced pleurisy in rats. They reduced (A) lung injury, (B) pleural exudate formation, (C) polymorphonuclear cell infiltration, (D) pleural exudate levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and CINC-1 but did not affect IL-6 and IL-10 levels. They reduced (E) pleural exudate levels of nitrite/nitrate (NOx). In indomethacin treated rats, the volume of pleural exudate was low, its content in leukocytes and its contents in TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 but not in NOx were reduced. These data suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of PACs are achieved through a different pattern from those of indomethacin.
These results suggest that the main mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of PACs mainly lies in an interference with the migration of the leukocytes. Moreover, PACs inhibited in vivo nitric oxide release.
- Pleural Cavity
- Carrageenin Injection
- Plasma Exudation
Proanthocyanidins are compounds, naturally occurring in various plants, with anti-inflammatory [1, 2] and anti-arthritic activities . They are reported to prevent skin aging and heart diseases, they scavenge oxygen free radicals and inhibit UV radiation-induced peroxidation [4–10].
Previously, we have observed that, in vitro, these compounds profoundly affect the metabolism of chondrocytes: they increase the secretion from these cells of type II collagen and proteoglycans while they decrease the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) . On the other hand, while these compounds inhibited purified cyclo-oxygenase-1 and cyclo-oxygenase-2, they did not reduce the release of thromboxane B2 and PGE2 from human in vitro stimulated platelets and neutrophils respectively . Moreover, PACs might influence the contractile status of smooth muscles of blood vessels: intravenous and intraperitoneal injection of PACs induced a drop of the blood pressure without a significant bradycardia . This effect counteracts the hypertensive activity of norepinephrine.
The present studies were designed to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory activities of these compounds, in vivo, on carrageenin-induced paw oedema and pleurisy in rats. This latter inflammatory reaction allowed us to examine the influence of PACs not only on the exudate volume and polymorphonuclear cell accumulation but also on the release of several cytokines, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, CINC-1 and of nitric oxide (NO). These cytokines and NO are among the more important mediators involved in inflammatory processes [14–16].
Influence of PACs on rat paw oedema
Influence of PACs on the carrageenin-induced pleurisy
Effects of PACs on the release of cytokines
Effect of PACs on nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels in pleural exudate
Histological examination of lung sections
Proanthocyanidins (PACs) from Ribes nigrum leaves reduced the inflammatory reactions induced by carrageenin in rats: the extent of the paw oedema was halved, the volume of the pleural exudates and its content in TNF-α, IL-1β, CINC-1 and NOx were reduced, the infiltration of leukocytes into the lungs and the accumulation of leukocytes into the pleural cavity were largely diminished.
PACs have been reported to be able to scavenge free radicals and NO . This property could be an explanation of the reduction of NOx level in the pleural fluid after PACs treatment. According to Ialenti et al , during the development of carrageenin-induced pleurisy, the main role of NO is the inhibition of leukocytes migration to the inflammatory site. However, in rats pretreated with PACs, the level of NOx and of leukocytes are simultaneously reduced. This result suggests that PACs could more or less directly affect the transmigration of leukocytes.
The development of carrageenin-induced inflammatory reactions in rats results from the activation of the kinin system, the accumulation of leukocytes and the release of several mediators such as prostanoids and cytokines [19, 20]. Indeed, these inflammatory reactions are greatly reduced in kininogen-deficient rats, in animals pretreated with kinin-antagonists and in leucopenic rats [19, 21]. Previous studies  have demonstrated that PACs can reduce other inflammatory reactions such as the oedemas induced in rats by nystatin and concanavalin-A in which the kinin system is not involved  but in which leukocytes play a major role . The comparison of the major determinants of these three kinds of reactions, all inhibited by PACs, is another argument suggesting that the main target explaining the anti-inflammatory activity of PACs would be the involvement of leukocytes.
Pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 are sequentially released in the pleural exudates induced by carrageenin in rat . These cytokines cause chemotaxis to attract granulocytes and monocytes and then, migrating leukocytes produce, in turn, further cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-1β, and other pro-inflammatory mediators . IL-6 has been proposed as a crucial mediator for the development of carrageenin-induced pleurisy and for the accumulation of leukocytes in the inflammatory site. Indeed, in carrageenin-induced pleurisy in IL-6 knock-out mice, the degree of plasma exudation, leukocyte migration and the release of TNF-α and IL-1β were greatly reduced. Moreover, a positive feedback plays an important part in the development of the oedema as levels of TNF-α and IL-1β are attenuated in IL-6 knock-out mice . PACs did not affect the level of IL-6 and of IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, but reduced the pleural content of TNF-α, IL-1β and leukocytes. This result indicates that the release of IL-6 does not depend on the presence of leukocytes, of TNF-α and IL-1β on one hand, and, on the other hand, suggest that the main target of PACs would be the accumulation of leukocytes and the associated release of inflammatory mediators.
TNF-α plays an important role in promoting and amplifying lung inflammation through the release of chemotactic factors such as CINC-1 (rat IL-8), an important mediator that promotes the migration of neutrophils  and oesinophils . CINC-1 can increase the expression of LFA-1 integrin on rat neutrophils  and because expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules such as E-selectin is dependent on CINC , the inhibition of CINC-1 levels in pleural exudates by PACs may exert both direct and indirect effects on neutrophil vascular adhesion and extravascular migration. PACs probably acts by disrupting TNF-α, IL-1β, CINC-1 and PMNs accumulation pathways. One of the mechanism for the anti-inflammatory effect of PACs may be attenuation of the migration of PMNs in the exudate, because CINC-1, a representative cytokine for PMNs migration in rats, is suppressed by PACs in parallel with PMNs number dose-related fashion. Although, clarification for the precise mechanism would remain in future study.
Recently, grape seed proanthocyanidins have been demonstrated to reduce the expression of soluble adhesion molecules, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin in the plasma of systemic sclerosis patients . The same compounds have been shown to inhibit TNF-α-induced V-CAM-1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells cultures . A possible mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of PACs would be an interference with the expression or the effect of adhesion molecules. This interference would result in a reduction of polymorphonuclear cell migration and subsequently in a reduction of the release of pro-inflammatory factors such as TNF-α and IL-1β.
Injection of carrageenin into the pleural cavity induces the accumulation of leukocytes, a release of cytokines, the expression of inducible NO synthase and of cyclo-oxygenase-2, and thus the release of large amounts of nitric oxide and of prostanoids . The inhibitory effect of PACs on the accumulation of leukocytes and on the release of TNF-α and IL-1β could have resulted in a decrease in the induction of inducible NO-synthase and of cyclo-oxygenase-2 and finally of plasma exudation.
Comparatively, some animals have been treated with indomethacin. The inhibitory effect of this well-known non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug is larger than that obtained with PACs. Indomethacin greatly reduced plasma exudation, nearly suppressed the accumulation of leukocytes and decreased the levels of the cytokines while, it did not modify the pleural content of NOx. Indomethacin is known to inhibit the cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 responsible of the release of PGE2 production. The peak of cyclooxygenase-2 activity measured by prostanoid levels in carrageenin-induced pleural exudates spreads from 2 to 6 h after irritant injection [31, 32]. Both IL-6 and IL-10 release are, in part, stimulated by PGE2 [33, 34]. An inhibition of PGE2 production by high doses of indomethacin could result in a downregulation of IL-6 and IL-10 production [35, 36]. Moreover, Cuzzocrea et al , using carrageenin-induced pleurisy in IL-6 knock out mice, showed that IL-1β and TNF-α production in the pleural exudates is, at least, partly IL-6 dependent. Our results showing a reduction in the levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and CINC-1 by indomethacin four hours after the induction of the pleurisy, could be mainly explained through the inhibition of PGE2 and IL-6 pathways.
In conclusion, we have shown that proanthocyanidins isolated from Ribes nigrum leaves interfere with the accumulation of circulating leukocytes, associated with a reduction of pro-inflammatory factors such as TNF-α, IL-1β and CINC-1, a decrease of NOx level and a decrease in plasma exudation.
We used male Wistar rats, weighing 250 – 300 gm. The animals were maintained on a standard laboratory diet with free access to water. The experiments were conducted as approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of the University of Liège, Belgium.
Rats were pretreated with an intraperitoneal administration of saline or PACs (10, 30, 60 and 100 mg/kg). Thirty minutes later, lambda carrageenin, (0.1 ml, 10 mg/ml) was injected into the plantar region of the right hind paw. Each experimental group contained six animals. Paw volume was measured using a water plethysmometer (Ugo Basile) before and 1 h, 2 h and 4 h after the injection of carrageenin. After 4 h, the animals were anaesthetized with a large dose of sodium pentobarbital (80 mg/kg).
Rats were pretreated with an intraperitoneal injection of saline, PACs (10, 30, 60 or 100 mg/kg) or indomethacin (10 mg/kg) 30 min before the intrapleural injection of the irritant. They were then anaesthetized with ketamine HCl (75 mg/kg) and carrageenin (0.2 ml, 10 mg/ml) or saline (0.2 ml) was administered into the right pleural cavity. Each experimental group contained 6 animals. Four hours later, the animals were anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (80 mg/kg). The chest was carefully opened and the pleural cavity rinsed with 2.0 ml saline solution containing heparin (5 U/ml). Exudates and washing solutions were removed by aspiration and the total volume measured. Exudates with blood were rejected. Exudates were aliquoted and kept frozen at -32°C.
After removal of the exudates, lungs were withdrawn and fixed for one week under 30 cm pressure with 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution containing 0.480 M Na2HPO4 and 0.187 M KH2PO4 (pH 7.2) at room temperature. They were then dehydrated by graded ethanol and embedded in Paraplast. Tissue sections (thickness 7 μm) were deparaffinized with UltraClear, stained with hematoxylin-eosine and examined using light microscopy.
The volume of the exudates was calculated by subtracting the volume of the washing solution (2.0 ml) from the total volume recovered. A sample of each exudate was diluted in phosphate buffer and total leukocyte count was performed using a hemocytometer.
The levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 in the exudates were measured using a colorimetric commercial ELISA kit (Biosource, Nivelles, Belgium) with a lower detection limit of 4, 3, 8 and 5 pg/ml, respectively. The levels of CINC-1 in the exudates were measured using a colorimetric commercial ELISA kit (Amersham Biosciences, Freiburg, Germany) with a lower detection limit of 0.49 pg/ml.
The amount of NOx (nitrite/nitrate) present in the exudates was determined using a microplate assay method (Calbiochem, Leuven, Belgium) based on Griess reaction after reduction of NO3 - to NO2 - with a lower detection limit of 1 μM.
Extraction and purification of proanthocyanidins
Proanthocyanidins from Ribes nigrum leaves were extracted and isolated according to a previously described method . A voucher sample (RN 210590) has been deposited in the Pharmaceutical Institute of Liège, Belgium. Briefly, leaves were powdered separately and then extracted at room temperature with acetone (70 % v/v in water). The acetone was removed under vacuum at 40°C. The resulting aqueous solution was freeze-dried. Isolation was carried out by MPLC on reversed-phase RP8 with water-acetone (9:1) to obtain a total proanthocyanidin-enriched fraction (PACs).
We used ketamine-HCl from Pfizer (Bruxelles, Belgium), sodium pentobarbital from Ceva (Bruxelles, Belgium) and heparin from B. Braun Medicals (Diegem, Belgium). PACs and lambda carrageenin (Sigma, Bornem, Belgium) were dissolved in saline. Indomethacin (Merck, Sharp and Dohme, Leuven, Belgium) was dissolved in Tris-HCl (0.15 M, pH 7.4).
Results are given as mean ± standard error of the mean (s.e. mean) of N observations. For the oedema paw studies, a Mixed Procedure SAS (normal distribution) was used to compare difference of least square means. For the pleurisy studies, data sets were examined by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a Scheffe post-hoc test. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant.
- Tits M, Angenot L, Damas J, Dierckxsens Y, Poukens P: Anti-inflammatory prodelphinidins from blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) leaves [abstract]. Planta Med. 1991, 57 (Suppl 2): A134-View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Blazso G, Gabor M, Rohdewald P: Antiinflammatory activities of procyanidin-containing extracts from Pinus pinaster Ait. after oral and cutaneous application. Pharmazie. 1997, 52: 380-382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Haqqi TM, Anthony DD, Gupta S, Ahmad N, Lee MS, Kumar GK, Mukhtar H: Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis in mice by a polyphenolic fraction from green tea. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1999, 96: 4524-4529. 10.1073/pnas.96.8.4524.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Agarwal R, Katiyar SK, Zaidi SIA, Mukhtar H: Inhibition of skin tumor promoter-caused induction of epidermal ornithine decarboxylase in SENCAR mice by polyphenolic fraction isolated from green tea and its individual epicatechin derivatives. Cancer Res. 1992, 52: 3582-3588.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Maffei Facino R, Carini M, Aldini G, Berti F, Rossoni G, Bombardelli E, Morazzoni P: Procyanidins from Vitis vinifera seeds protect rabbit heart from ischemia/reperfusion injury: antioxidant intervention and/or iron and copper sequestering ability. Planta Med. 1996, 62: 495-502.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Aucamp J, Gaspar A, Hara Y, Apostolides Z: Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by catechins from tea (Camellia sinensis). Anticancer Res. 1997, 17: 4381-4385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bagchi D, Garg A, Krohn RL, Bagchi M, Bagchi DJ, Balmoori J, Stohs SJ: Protective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins and selected antioxidants against TPA-induced hepatic and brain lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation and peritoneal macrophage activation in mice. Gen Pharmacol. 1998, 30: 771-776.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bouhalidi R, Prevost V, Nouvelot A: High protection by grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPC) of polyunsaturated fatty acids against UVC-induced peroxidation. CR Acad Sci III. 1998, 321: 31-38.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhao J, Wang J, Chen Y, Agarwal R: Anti-tumor-promoting activity of a polyphenolic fraction isolated from grape seeds in the mouse skin two-stage initiation-promotion protocol and identification of procyanidin B5-3'-gallate as the most effective antioxidant constituent. Carcinogenesis. 1999, 20: 1737-1745. 10.1093/carcin/20.9.1737.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bagchi D, Bagchi M, Stohs SD, Ray SD, Sen CK, Preuss HG: Cellular protection with proanthocyanidins derived from grape seeds. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2002, 957: 260-270.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bruneton J: Tanins. In: Pharmacognosie, phytochimie, plantes médicinales. Edited by: Bruneton J. 1999, Paris: Editions Techniques & Documentation, 369-404. 3Google Scholar
- Garbacki N, Angenot L, Bassleer C, Damas J, Tits M: Effects of prodelphinidins isolated from Ribes nigrum on chondrocytes metabolism and COX activity. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch Pharmacol. 2002, 365: 434-441. 10.1007/s00210-002-0553-y.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Garbacki N, Damas J: Some effects of proanthocyanidins isolated from Ribes nigrum on the cardiovascular system of the rat. Fund Clin Pharmacol. 2004, 18: 270-Google Scholar
- Utsunomiya I, Nagai S, Oh-ishi S: Sequential appearance of IL-1 and IL-6 activities in rat carrageenin-induced pleurisy. J Immunol. 1991, 147: 1803-1818.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Utsunomiya I, Ito M, Oh-ishi S: Generation of inflammatory cytokines production in zymosan-induced pleurisy in rats: TNF induces IL-6 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CICN) in vivo. Cytokine. 1996, 10: 956-963. 10.1006/cyto.1998.0376.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hatanaka K, Kawamura M, Ogino K, Matsuo S, Harada Y: Expression and function of cyclooxygenase-2 in mesothelial cells during late phase of rat carrageenin-induced pleurisy. Life Sci. 1999, 65: 161-166. 10.1016/S0024-3205(99)00384-7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bagchi D, Sen CK, Ray SD, Das DK, Bagchi M, Preuss HG, Vinson JA: Molecular mechanisms of cardioprotection by a novel grape seed proanthocyanidin extract. Mutat Res. 2003, 523–524: 87-97.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ialenti A, Ianaro A, Maffia P, Sautebin L, Di Rosa M: Nitric oxide inhibits leucocyte migration in carrageenin-induced rat pleurisy. Inflamm Res. 2000, 49: 411-417. 10.1007/s000110050609.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Damas J: The brown Norway rat and the kinin system. Peptides. 1996, 17: 859-872. 10.1016/0196-9781(96)00056-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ueno A, Oh-ishi S: Critical roles for bradykinin and prostanoids in acute inflammatory reactions: a search using experimental animal models. Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy. 2002, 1: 363-376.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Damas J, Remacle-Volon G, Deflandre E: Further studies of the mechanism of counter irritation by turpentine. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1986, 332: 196-200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Garbacki N, Tits M, Damas J: Anti-inflammatory effect of natural proanthocyanidins: pharmacological evaluation on in vivo models [abstract]. Eur J Physiol. 2003, 446: R5-Google Scholar
- Arrigoni-Martelli E: Screening and assessment of antiinflammatory drugs. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1979, 1: 157-177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cuzzocrea S, Sautebin L, De Sarro G, Costantino G, Rombòla L, Mazzon E, Ialenti A, De Sarro A, Ciliberto G, Di Rosa M, Caputi AP, Thiemermann C: Role of IL-6 in the pleurisy and lung injury caused by carrageenin. J Immunol. 1999, 163: 5094-5104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Clozel M, Breu V, Burri K, Cassal JM, Fischli W, Gray GA, Hirth G, Loffler BM, Muller M, Neidhart W: Pathophysiological role of endothelin revealed by the first orally active endothelin receptor antagonist. Nature. 1993, 365: 759-761. 10.1038/365759a0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Clozel M, Breu V, Gray GA, Kalina B, Loffler BM, Burri K, Cassal JM, Hirth G, Muller M, Neidhart W: Pharmacological characterization of bosentan, a new potent orally active nonpeptide endothelin receptor antagonist. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994, 270: 228-235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Frevert CW, Huang S, Danaee H, Paulauskis JD, Kobzik L: Functional characterization of the rat chemokine KC and its importance in neutrophil recruitment in a rat model of pulmonary inflammation. J Immunol. 1995, 154: 335-344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Harris JG, Flower RJ, Watanabe K, Tsurufuji S, Wolitzky BA, Perretti M: Relative contribution of the selectins in the neutrophil recruitment caused by the chemokine cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996, 221: 692-696. 10.1006/bbrc.1996.0658.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kalfin R, Righi A, del Rosso A, Bagchi D, Generini S, Matucci Cerinic M, Das DK: Activin, a grape seed-derived proanthocyanidin extract, reduces plasma levels of oxidative stress and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin) in systemic sclerosis. Free Rad Res. 2002, 36: 819-825. 10.1080/1071576021000005249.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sen CK, Bagchi D: Regulation of inducible adhesion molecule expression in human endothelial cells by grape seed proanthocyanidin extract. Mol Cell Biochem. 2001, 216: 1-17. 10.1023/A:1011053300727.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Velo GP, Dunn CJ, Giroud JP, Timsit J, Willoughby DA: Distribution of prostaglandins in inflammatory exudates. J Pathol. 1973, 111: 149-158.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Harada Y, Hatanaka K, Kawamura M, Saito M, Ogino M, Majima M, Ohno T, Ogino K, Yamamoto K, Taketani Y, Yamamoto S, Katori M: Role of prostaglandin H synthase-2 in prostaglandin E2 formation in rat carrageenin-induced pleurisy. Prostaglandins. 1996, 51: 19-33. 10.1016/0090-6980(95)00168-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rothwell NJ, Hopkins SJ: Cytokines and the nervous system II: actions and mechanisms of action. TINS. 1995, 18: 130-136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Niho Y, Niiro H, Tanaka Y, Nakashima H, Otsuka T: Role of IL-10 in the crossregulation of prostaglandins and cytokines in monocytes. Acta Haematol. 1998, 99: 165-170. 10.1159/000040831.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Blom MA, van Twillert MG, de Vries SC, Engels F, Finch CE, Veerhuis R, Eikelenboom P: NSAIDS inhibit the IL-1 beta-induced IL-6 release from human post-mortem astrocytes: the involvement of prostaglandin E2. Brain Res. 1997, 777: 210-218. 10.1016/S0006-8993(97)01204-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bour AM, Westendorp RG, Laterveer JC, Bollen EL, Remarque EJ: Interaction of indomethacin with cytokine production in whole blood. Potential mechanism for a brain-protective effect. Exp Gerontol. 2000, 35: 1017-1024. 10.1016/S0531-5565(00)00128-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tits M, Angenot L, Poukens P, Warin R, Dierckxsens Y: Prodelphinidins from Ribes nigrum. Phytochemistry. 1992, 31: 971-973.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.