- Research article
- Open Access
Minipig cytochrome P450 3A, 2A and 2C enzymes have similar properties to human analogs
© Soucek et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2001
- Received: 9 October 2001
- Accepted: 5 December 2001
- Published: 5 December 2001
The search for an optimal experimental model in pharmacology is recently focused on (mini)pigs as they seem not only to be an alternative source of cells and tissues for xenotherapy but also an alternative species for studies on drug metabolism in man due to similarities between (mini) pig and human drug metabolizing systems. The purpose of this work is to characterize minipig liver microsomal cytochromes P450 (CYPs) by comparing their N-terminal sequences with corresponding human orthologs.
The microsomal CYPs exhibit similar activities to their human orthologous enzymes (CYP3A4, nifedipine oxidation; 2A6, coumarin 7-hydroxylation; 2D6, bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation; 2E1, p-nitrophenol hydroxylation; and 2C9, tolbutamide hydroxylation). Specific minipig CYP (2A, 2C and 3A) enzymes were partially purified and proteins identified by immunostaining (using antibodies against the respective human CYPs) were used for N-terminal amino acid sequencing. From comparisons, it can be concluded that the sequence of the first 20 amino acids at the N-terminus of minipig CYP2A is highly similar to human CYP2A6 (70% identity). The N-terminal sequence of CYP2C shared about 50% similarity with human 2C9. The results on the minipig liver microsomal CYP3A yielded identical data with those obtained for amino acid sequences of the pig CYP3A29 showing 60% identity with human CYP3A4.
Thus, our results further support the view that minipigs may serve as model animals in pharmacological/toxicological studies with substrates of human CYP enzymes, namely, of the CYP3A and CYP2A forms.
- Cholate Concentration
- Tolbutamide Hydroxylation
- Human Recombinant CYP2A6
- Bioartificial Liver Device
- Nifedipine Oxidation
Cytochromes P450 (EC 126.96.36.199, CYP) enzymes are known to metabolize the majority of drugs, to detoxify environmental pollutants as well as to activate some classes of carcinogens as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or nitrosamines [1–3].
Detoxifying systems of minipig and pig liver have recently attracted considerable attention [4–8] as the minipig and pig liver and hepatocytes are believed to be a possible solution for construction of bioartificial liver devices designed to overcome the shortage of human organs for transplantation [7, 9]. Moreover, pigs and especially minipigs might be good model species for general studies in pharmacology and toxicology without the need to induce biotransformation enzymes . Minipig and pig liver have been shown to express the main biotransformation enzymes in amounts and activities comparable to their human counterparts [4, 6–8, 11]. Three cDNA clones from a porcine small intestine cDNA library were identified as transcripts of three members of porcine CYP gene subfamily, CYP2D25, CYP3A29, and truncated CYP2C42; the fourth cDNA clone appeared to encode a putative CYP2C pseudogene [12, 13].
An advantage of the minipig is that it is apparently close to the conventional pig and, hence, the properties of the drug metabolizing systems should be very similar. In our previous work, we have found CYP1A, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2E, and 3A marker activities in minipig liver microsomes by testing the respective specific substrates for human CYP enzymes . In this paper, we report the results of the isolation and characterisation of the first three CYP enzymes from minipig liver microsomal fraction belonging according to their activities as well as to their N-terminal amino acid residues to the CYP2A, CYP2C, and CYP3A subfamilies.
The microsomal fraction of minipig liver homogenate has been shown to contain the activities characteristic of human CYP3A4 (nifedipine oxidation), 2A6 (coumarin 7-hydroxylation), 2D6 (bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation), 2E1 (p-nitrophenol hydroxylation), and 2C9 (tolbutamide hydroxylation) . The presence of these CYP enzymes in minipig microsomes was confirmed by immunoblotting using antibodies against the respective human P450 enzymes (results not shown). These results have confirmed our earlier finding  as well as the results of other authors on pig [6, 7, 14] and minipig liver microsomal systems [8, 15].
Comparison of Human, Pig, and Minipig CYP N-terminal sequences
Sequence (amino acid No.)
M L A S G L L L V A L L T/L R L X I F V L
M L A S G M L L V A L L V C L T V M V L
M D V L V X L A L X L L L V X L L L
M D S L V V L V L C L S C L LL L S
M D L I P G F S T E T W V L L A T S L V
M D L I P G F S T E T W V L L A T S L V
M A L I P D L A M E T R L L L A V S L V
From this comparison it can be concluded that the N-terminus of minipig CYP2A is highly similar to human CYP2A6 (14 of 20 amino acids identical). Comparison of CYP2C family members may be quite difficult because of very high content of Leu at the N-terminus of the sequenced minipig protein (still about 50% sequence identity with the human counterpart, Table 1). Moreover, the human CYP2C subfamily has at least four highly homologous clones (sequence identity at the N-terminus > 90%), and therefore the existence of other CYP2C-related genes in the minipig may be anticipated. This problem may hamper further attempts to identify minipig CYP2C proteins with the approach we have used. cDNA cloning should help to answer this question much better.
The protein sequence of another CYP protein present in the sample matched very well the N-terminal amino acid sequence deduced from published cDNA for pig CYP3A29 (Table 1, data from ). The pig/minipig CYP3A and human CYP3A4 shared about 60% sequence similarity (12 of 20 amino acids identical). The presence of a minipig liver CYP3A enzyme with similar activities to the human CYP3A4 has been reported earlier . Together with the data obtained with pig liver and intestinal microsomal systems [16–18], the results support the suitability of pigs/minipigs for modeling the biotransformation of drugs in man.
From our results it seems that pigs and minipigs have CYP2A, 2C, and 3A liver microsomal enzymes with very similar N-terminal sequences to the human enzymes. This finding may be important for pharmacological and toxicological studies because i) CYP3A, 2C and 2A enzymes metabolize many known industrial chemicals and drugs in human use and ii) minipigs in pharmacology/toxicology are much easier to handle than conventional pigs as model animals. The observed high similarities of N-terminal sequences of minipig and human CYP2A and 2C confirm the previously published similarity in marker activities [4, 8].
The results presented in this study support the use of minipigs as experimental animals to predict biotransformation pathways in man and should stimulate further research on similarity of structure and substrate specificity of individual human and (mini)pig CYP enzymes. The conclusions then obtained may in future bring justification for the use of pig hepatocytes and liver for extracorporeal detoxification and xenotransplantation.
All reagents and chromatographic materials were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (Prague, CR) if not stated otherwise and were of the analytical grade purity. DEAE Sephacel was product of Pharmacia Biotech (Uppsala, Sweden). Polyclonal rabbit anti-CYP2A6, anti-CYP2C9, and anti-CYP3A4 IgG were prepared as described elsewhere . Human recombinant CYP2A6, 2C9, and 3A4 were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified as described previously [20–22] and used as standards.
Purification of minipig enzymes
Microsomal fractions of liver homogenates were prepared from minipig livers (Brno white variety of Goettingen minipig, Research Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Brno, CR, 25–30 kg body weight, male castrates, N = 5, age 6 months). No induction protocols were applied to minipigs. The preparation of microsomes was done according to standard procedure . Separation of CYP enzymes from cholate-solubilized microsomal fraction was based in general on the procedure developed earlier [24, 25]. Solubilized microsomes were applied to an octyl-Sepharose column where the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase was eluted first during the wash with equilibration buffer (buffer A, 0.1 M K/PO4, pH 7.25, 1 mM EDTA, 20% (v/v) glycerol, 0.6% (w/v) cholate), in which the cholate concentration was reduced to 0.42%. A sharp peak containing cytochrome b5 together with CYP3A was eluted when the concentration of cholate was further lowered to 0.33% and 0.06% (w/v) Triton N-101 was added to buffer A. The next fractions eluted after CYP3A and cytochrome b5 appeared to contain mainly the CYP2C and CYP2D enzymes. Lastly, the fractions with CYP2A were eluted. CYP3A was separated from cytochrome b5 by anion exchange chromatography on DEAE Sephacel equilibrated with buffer B: 5 mM K/PO4, pH 7.7, containing 0.1 mM EDTA, 20% glycerol (v/v), and 0.2% sodium cholate (w/v). Increasing the cholate concentration to 0.5% along with addition of 0.2% Triton N-101 (w/v) resulted in elution of the CYP containing peak. Impure fractions containing CYP were dialyzed overnight against 10 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, containing 0.05 mM EDTA, 0.1 mM dithiothreitol, and 20% glycerol (v/v) and further purified by chromatography on a hydroxylapatite column equilibrated with the same buffer. Extensive washing was done to remove Triton N-101. CYP was eluted using a linear gradient of phosphate, from 10 mM to 500 mM. The hydroxylapatite chromatography was repeated to further purify the CYP enzyme fractions prior to immunoblotting and amino acid sequencing.
Specific activities of individual CYP enzymes (pmol product/nmolP450/min)
Liver microsomal fraction
2193 ± 523
210 ± 70
136 ± 31
CYP – containing fractions
3716 ± 428
423 ± 148
Electrophoresis and immunoblotting
SDS electrophoresis was done in 10% and 8% (w/v) polyacrylamide gels by the method of Laemmli  using a MiniProtean apparatus (BioRad, Hercules, CA). Protein staining was done with Coomassie Blue R-250  and immunoblotting was performed as described  using the described conditions for development of blots . Polyclonal anti-human CYP2A6, 2C9 and 3A4 IgG were used.
Amino acid sequencing
N-Terminal amino acid sequencing was performed using Procise Protein Sequencer (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) and methodology based on Edman degradation. SDS electrophoresis, transfer of protein to Immobilon-P membrane (Millipore Corp. Bedford, MA), and staining methods are described elsewhere . Yields at each cycle were estimated by comparison with external standards.
We thank E. Howard for technical assistance with the Edman degradation. The financial support from Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (grant 203/99/0277), Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (project MSM 151100003) and United States Public Health Service (grants R35 CA44353 and POI ES00267) is gratefully acknowledged.
- Ortiz de Montellano PR, (editor): Cytochrome P450. (2nd Ed.). New York, Plenum Press. 1995Google Scholar
- Guengerich FP: Metabolism of chemical carcinogens. Carcinogenesis. 2000, 21: 345-351. 10.1093/carcin/21.3.345.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Anzenbacher P, Anzenbacherová E: Cytochromes P450 and metabolism of xenobiotics. CMLS, Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 2001, 58: 737-747.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Anzenbacher P, Soucek P, Anzenbacherová E, Gut I, Hrubý K, Svoboda Z, Kvetina J: Presence and activity of cytochrome P450 isoforms in minipig liver microsomes. Comparison with human liver samples. Drug Metab. Dispos. 1998, 26: 90-93.Google Scholar
- Marini S, Longo V, Mazzaccaro A, Gervasi PG: Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in pig nasal and hepatic tissues. Xenobiotica. 1998, 28: 923-935. 10.1080/004982598238994.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Monshouwer M, van't Klooster GAE, Nijmeijer SM, Witkamp RF, van Miert ASJPAM: Characterization of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes in primary cultures of pig hepatocytes. Toxicol. in Vitro. 1998, 12: 715-723. 10.1016/S0887-2333(98)00053-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Desille M, Corcos L, L'Helgoualc'h A, Frémond B, Campion J-P, Guillouzo A, Clément B: Detoxifying activity in pig livers and hepatocytes intended for xenotherapy. Transplantation. 1999, 10: 1437-1443. 10.1097/00007890-199911270-00002.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Skaanild M, Friis C: Cytochrome P450 sex differences in minipigs and conventional pigs. Pharm. Toxicol. 1999, 85: 174-180.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Horslen SP, Hammel JM, Fristoe LW, Kangas JA, Collier DS, Sudan DL, Langnas AN, Dixon RS, Prentice ED, Shaw BW, Fox IJ: Extracorporeal liver perfusion using human and pig livers for acute liver failure. Transplantation. 2000, 70: 1472-1478. 10.1097/00007890-200011270-00014.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kvetina J, Svoboda Z, Nobilis M, Pastera J, Anzenbacher P: Experimental Goettingen minipig and Beagle dog as two species used in bioequivalence studies for clinical pharmacology. Gen. Physiol. Biophys. 1999, 18: 80-85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Donato MT, Castell JV, Gomez-Lechon MJ: Characterization of drug metabolizing activities in pig hepatocytes for use in bioartificial liver devices. J. Hepatol. 1999, 31: 542-549. 10.1016/S0168-8278(99)80049-X.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Postlind H, Axén E, Bergman T, Wikvall K: Cloning, structure and expression of cDNA encoding vitamin D3-25 hydroxylase. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1997, 241: 491-497. 10.1006/bbrc.1997.7551.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nissen PH, Wintero AK, Fredholm M: Mapping of porcine genes belonging to two different cytochrome P450 subfamilies. Anim. Genet. 1998, 29: 7-11. 10.1046/j.1365-2052.1998.00225.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jurima-Romet M, Calsley WL, Leblanc CA, Nowakowska M: Evidence for the catalysis of dextromethorphan O-demethylation by a CYP2D6-like enzyme in pig liver. Toxicol. in Vitro. 2000, 14: 253-263. 10.1016/S0887-2333(00)00016-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Skaanild MT, Friis C: Expression changes of CYP2A and CYP3A in microsomes from pig liver and cultured hepatocytes. Pharm. Toxicol. 2000, 87: 174-178. 10.1034/j.1600-0773.2000.d01-69.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lampen A, Christians U, Guengerich FP, Watkins PB, Kolars JC, Bader A, Gonschior AK, Dralle H, Hackbarth I, Sewing KF: Metabolism of the immunosuppressant tacrolimus in the small intestine: Cytochrome P450, drug interactions, and interindividual variability. Drug. Metab. Dispos. 1995, 12: 1315-1324.Google Scholar
- Olsen A, Hansen KT, Friis C: Pig hepatocytes as an in vitro model to study the regulation of human CYP3A4: prediction of drug-drug interactions with 17β-ethynylestradiol. Chem.-Biol. Interact. 1997, 107: 93-108. 10.1016/S0009-2797(97)00077-X.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bader A, Hansen T, Kirchner G, Allmeling C, Haverich A, Borlak JT: Primary porcine enterocyte and hepatocyte cultures to study drug oxidation reactions. Br. J. Pharmacol. 2000, 129: 331-342.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Soucek P, Martin MV, Ueng YF, Guengerich FP: Identification of common cytochrome P450 epitope near the conserved heme-binding peptide with antibodies raised against recombinant cytochrome P450 family 2 proteins. Biochemistry. 1995, 34: 16013-16021.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sandhu P, Baba T, Guengerich FP: Expression of modified cytochrome 450 2C10(2C9) in Escherichia coli, purification, and reconstitution of catalytic activity. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1993, 306: 443-450. 10.1006/abbi.1993.1536.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gillam EJ, Baba T, Kim BR, Ohmori S, Guengerich FP: Expression of modified human cytochrome P450 3A4 in Escherichia coli and purification and reconstitution of the enzyme. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1993, 305: 123-131. 10.1006/abbi.1993.1401.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Soucek P: Expression of cytochrome P4502A6 in Escherichia coli, purification, spectral, and catalytic characterization and preparation of polyclonal antibodies. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1999, 370: 190-200. 10.1006/abbi.1999.1388.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lake BG: Preparation and characterisation of microsomal fractions for studies on xenobiotic metabolism. In: Biochemical Toxicology. A practical approach (Edited by Snell K, Mullock B) Oxford, IRL Press. 1990, 183-215.Google Scholar
- Guengerich FP, Dannan GA, Wright ST, Martin MV, Kaminsky LS: Purification and characterization of liver microsomal cytochromes P-450: electrophoretic, spectral, catalytic, and immunochemical properties and inducibility of eight isozymes isolated from rats treated with phenobarbital or beta naphthoflavone. Biochemistry. 1982, 21: 6019-6030.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Guengerich FP: Analysis and characterization of enzymes. In: Principles and Methods in Toxicology (edited by Hayes A W, 3rd Ed.) New York, Raven Press. 1994, 1259-1313.Google Scholar
- Guengerich FP, Martin MV, Beaune PR, Kremers P, Wolff T, Waxman DJ: Characterization of rat and human liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 forms involved in nifedipine oxidation, prototype for genetic polymorphism in oxidative drug metabolism. J. Biol. Chem. 1986, 261: 5051-5060.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Soucek P: Novel sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic method for assay of coumarin 7-hydroxylation. J. Chromatogr. B. 1999, 734: 23-29. 10.1016/S0378-4347(99)00325-4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Knodell RG, Hall SD, Wilkinson GR, Guengerich FP: Hepatic metabolism of tolbutamide: Characterization of the form of the cytochrome P450 involved in methyl-hydroxylation and relationship to in vivo disposition. J. Pharm. Exp. Ther. 1987, 241: 1112-1119.Google Scholar
- Shimada T, Yamazaki H: Cytochrome P450 reconstitution systems. In: Cytochrome P450 Protocols (edited by IR Phillips and EA Shephard) Totowa, NJ, Humana Press. 1998, 85-93.Google Scholar
- Laemmli UK: Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature. 1970, 227: 680-685.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fairbanks G, Steck TL, Wallach D: Electrophoretic analysis of the major polypeptides of human erythrocyte membrane. Biochemistry. 1971, 10: 2606-2617.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Towbin H, Staehelin T, Gordon J J: Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: procedure and some applications. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 1979, 76: 4350-4356.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original URL.