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  1. Inhibition of intestinal peristalsis is a major side effect of opioid analgesics. Although tramadol is an opioid-like analgesic, its effect on gut motility is little known. Therefore, the effect of (+)-tramado...

    Authors: Michael K Herbert, Rebecca Weis and Peter Holzer

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2007 7:5

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) released by adrenal glands may be converted to androgens and estrogens mainly in the gonadal, adipose, mammary, hepatic and nervous tissue. DHEA is also a key neurosteroid and has...

    Authors: Marta Serrano, Maria del Mar Grasa, José Antonio Fernández-López and Marià Alemany

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2007 7:4

    Content type: Research article

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  3. An injection of estradiol valerate (EV) provides estradiol for a prolonged period. Recent research indicates that a single 2.0 mg injection of EV modifies a female rat's appetite for alcoholic beverages. This ...

    Authors: Gina L Quirarte, Larry D Reid, I Sofía Ledesma de la Teja, Meta L Reid, Marco A Sánchez, Arnulfo Díaz-Trujillo, Azucena Aguilar-Vazquez and Roberto A Prado-Alcalá

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2007 7:3

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Agents belonging to diverse chemical classes are used clinically as general anesthetics. The molecular targets mediating their actions are however still only poorly defined. Both chemical diversity and substan...

    Authors: Anja Zeller, Margarete Arras, Rachel Jurd and Uwe Rudolph

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2007 7:2

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Polymeric alkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS), are chemical defences produced by marine sponges including Reniera sarai. Poly-APS have previously been shown to effectively deliver macromolecules into cells. The effi...

    Authors: David J Koss, Kathleen P Hindley, Kanola C David, Ines Mancini, Graziano Guella, Kristina Sepčić, Tom Turk, Katja Rebolj, Gernot Riedel, Bettina Platt and Roderick H Scott

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2007 7:1

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Previous studies have shown that there is a time-dependent upregulation of contractile endothelin B (ETB) receptors in middle cerebral arteries (MCA) after organ culture. This upregulation is dependent on mitogen...

    Authors: Marie Henriksson, Petter Vikman, Emelie Stenman, Saema Beg and Lars Edvinsson

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2006 6:13

    Content type: Research article

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  7. 6-Shogaol is one of the major compounds in the ginger rhizome that may contribute to its anti-inflammatory properties. Confirmation of this contribution was sought in this study in Sprague- Dawley rats (200–25...

    Authors: Arkene SA Levy, Oswald Simon, Janet Shelly and Michael Gardener

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2006 6:12

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Antipsychotics are divided into typical and atypical compounds based on clinical efficacy and side effects. The purpose of this study was to characterize in vitro a series of novel azecine-type compounds at human...

    Authors: Alexandra Hamacher, Mathias Weigt, Michael Wiese, Barbara Hoefgen, Jochen Lehmann and Matthias U Kassack

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2006 6:11

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Whole cell patch clamp recording and intracellular Ca2+ imaging were carried out on rat cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones to characterize the actions of crude extracts and purified samples from Red Sea...

    Authors: Tarek A Temraz, Wael E Houssen, Marcel Jaspars, David R Woolley, Kerrie N Wease, Steven N Davies and Roderick H Scott

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2006 6:10

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a vasoactive neuropeptide whose biological activity has potential therapeutic value for many vascular related diseases. CGRP is a 37 amino acid neuropeptide that signa...

    Authors: Sugato Banerjee, Janel Evanson, Erik Harris, Stephen L Lowe, Kathryn A Thomasson and James E Porter

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2006 6:9

    Content type: Research article

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Pharmacology 2006 6:14

  11. Anthrax is a human disease that results from infection by the bacteria, Bacillus anthracis and has recently been used as a bioterrorist agent. Historically, this disease was associated with Bacillus spore exposur...

    Authors: Mark Evan Goldman, Lynne Cregar, Dominique Nguyen, Ondrej Simo, Sean O'Malley and Tom Humphreys

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2006 6:8

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to be effective in inhibiting colorectal cancer. Cyclooxygenase activity is thought to mediate, in part, this cancer preventive effect. From observ...

    Authors: Lawrence Levine

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2006 6:7

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Nitric oxide (NO) is an inflammatory mediator, which acts as a cytotoxic agent and modulates immune responses and inflammation. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathway is activa...

    Authors: Aleksi Lahti, Outi Sareila, Hannu Kankaanranta and Eeva Moilanen

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2006 6:5

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Insulin is the drug of choice in the management of diabetes mellitus (DM). About 76 % of diabetic patients suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Therapy of DM with insulin primarily involves lowering of...

    Authors: Peddyreddy Murali Krishna Reddy, Steven Aibor Dkhar and Ramaswamy Subramanian

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2006 6:4

    Content type: Research article

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  15. The aim of the present study was to describe the activity of a set of opioid drugs, including partial agonists, in a human embryonic kidney cell system stably expressing only the mouse κ-opioid receptors. Rece...

    Authors: Parham Gharagozlou, Ezzat Hashemi, Timothy M DeLorey, J David Clark and Jelveh Lameh

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2006 6:3

    Content type: Software

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  16. γ-Aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors provide the main inhibitory control in the brain. Their heterogeneity may make it possible to precisely target drug effects to selected neuronal populations. In situ h...

    Authors: Martin Ranna, Saku T Sinkkonen, Tommi Möykkynen, Mikko Uusi-Oukari and Esa R Korpi

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2006 6:1

    Content type: Research article

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  17. In India, Curcumin (CMN) is popularly known as "Haldi", and has been well studied due to its economic importance. Traditional Indian medicine claims the use of its powder against biliary disorders, anorexia, c...

    Authors: Naveen Tirkey, Gaganjit Kaur, Garima Vij and Kanwaljit Chopra

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2005 5:15

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Antimuscarinic agents are the most popular treatment for overactive bladder and their efficacy in man is well documented, producing decreased urinary frequency and an increase in bladder capacity. During cysto...

    Authors: Patrizia Angelico, Cristina Velasco, Luciano Guarneri, Giorgio Sironi, Amedeo Leonardi and Rodolfo Testa

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2005 5:14

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Muscarinic receptor mediated adverse effects, such as sedation and xerostomia, significantly hinder the therapeutic usefulness of first generation antihistamines. Therefore, second and third generation antihis...

    Authors: G Howell III, L West, C Jenkins, B Lineberry, D Yokum and R Rockhold

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2005 5:13

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Tetrandrine inhibits tumor cell proliferation and demonstrates chemoprevention in cancer models. Speculation on the association between its effects on K+ and Ca2+ channels and cancer chemoprevention has been made...

    Authors: Lawrence Levine

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2005 5:12

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Anticancer bisdioxopiperazines, including ICRF-154, razoxane (Raz, ICRF-159) and ICRF-193, are a family of anticancer agents developed in the UK, especially targeting metastases of neoplasms. Two other bisdiox...

    Authors: Da Yong Lu, Min Huang, Cheng Hui Xu, Wei Yi Yang, Chao Xin Hu, Li Ping Lin, Lin Jiang Tong, Mei Hong Li, Wei Lu, Xiong Wen Zhang and Jian Ding

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2005 5:11

    Content type: Research article

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