- Research article
- Open Access
Effect of thymol on kinetic properties of Ca and K currents in rat skeletal muscle
© Szentandrássy et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2003
Received: 23 March 2003
Accepted: 15 July 2003
Published: 15 July 2003
Thymol is widely used as a general antiseptic and antioxidant compound in the medical practice and industry, and also as a stabilizer to several therapeutic agents, including halothane. Thus intoxication with thymol may occur in case of ingestion or improper anesthesia. In the present study, therefore, concentration-dependent effects of thymol (30–600 micro-grams) were studied on calcium and potassium currents in enzymatically isolated rat skeletal muscle fibers using the double vaseline gap voltage clamp technique.
Thymol suppressed both Ca and K currents in a concentration-dependent manner, the EC50 values were 193 ± 26 and 93 ± 11 μM, with Hill coefficients of 2.52 ± 0.29 and 1.51 ± 0.18, respectively. Thymol had a biphasic effect on Ca current kinetics: time to peak current and the time constant for inactivation increased at lower (100–200 μM) but decreased below their control values at higher (600 μM) concentrations. Inactivation of K current was also significantly accelerated by thymol (200–300 μM). These effects of thymol developed rapidly and were partially reversible. In spite of the marked effects on the time-dependent properties, thymol caused no change in the current-voltage relationship of Ca and K peak currents.
Present results revealed marked suppression of Ca and K currents in skeletal muscle, similar to results obtained previously in cardiac cells. Furthermore, it is possible that part of the suppressive effects of halothane on Ca and K currents, observed experimentally, may be attributed to the concomitant presence of thymol in the superfusate.
Thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol) is widely used as a general antiseptic in the medical practice, agriculture, cosmetics and food industry [1–3]. Due to its potent fungicide, bactericide and antioxidant properties thymol is applied primarily in dentistry for treatment of oral infections [4–6]. Thymol was also shown to have strong antiinflammatory action by decreasing the release of inflammatory metabolites like prostanoids, interleukins, and leukotrienes [7, 8]. Thymol is added as a stabilizer to several therapeutic agents, including halothane, and the drug was shown to accumulate in the vaporizer during anesthesia. Thymol was reported to suppress Ca and various K currents in mammalian and human cardiac cells , but little is known about its effects in mammalian skeletal muscle. A further purpose of this study was to test the effects of the potent antioxidant thymol on the kinetic properties Ca and K currents. Modulation of transmembrane Ca and K currents by antioxidants have been recently reported [10, 11].
Effect of thymol on the Ca current
Current-voltage relations for ICa were obtained by applying a series of test pulses starting from the holding potential of -100 mV to test potentials increasing from -50 to +60 mV in 10 mV steps in the absence and presence of 300 μM thymol, and peak ICa was plotted against its respective test potential (Figure 2C). Ca conductance was calculated at each membrane potential using Eqn. 2 and 3 (Figure 2D). Effect of 300 μM thymol on activation of ICa was not voltage-dependent as indicated by the unchanged shape of the I-V relationship and GCa-V curves. The estimated variables describing the voltage dependence of channel activation: the voltage of half-maximal conductance (V' = -12.2 ± 2.4 versus -12.8 ± 1.3 mV) and the slope factor (k = 6.1 ± 1.2 versus 4.6 ± 0.7 mV) were not altered significantly by 300 μM thymol in the 8 muscle fibers studied. On the other hand, 300 μM thymol significantly reduced the maximal conductance (Gmax) from a control value of 120 ± 2.7 to 74.3 ± 1.5 S/F.
Effect of thymol on K current
We have shown in this study that thymol exerts concentration-dependent blocking effect on Ca and K currents in skeletal muscle membranes. This suppressive effect, however, was substantially different in terms of k50 values and Hill coefficients. First, the Hill coefficient estimated for the thymol-induced block of K currents was close to unity (1.51), indicating the involvement of a single, independent binding site. In contrast, the inhibitory effect of thymol on ICa was characterized by a Hill coefficient of 2.52, suggesting a strong positive cooperation between the binding sites involved, or alternatively, contribution of more than one mechanism in the block. The second difference was observed between the sensitivities to thymol. The k50 value estimated when blocking IK (93 μM) was significantly lower than that obtained for ICa block (193 μM).
Recent experiments have suggested that intracellular as well as sarcolemmal ion channels might be regulated through their thiol redox state. Oxidizing and reducing reagents have indeed been shown to modulate both K  and Ca channels [11, 14] in a variety of tissues. For K channels antioxidants were found to inhibit transmembrane ion currents  similarly as described here for thymol. For Ca channels data are more numerous and more diverse. While Campbell et al.  described an activation of L-type Ca current in ferret ventricular myocytes upon oxidation, Fearon et al.  found an inhibition in expression systems. Similar inhibition was described in guinea-pig cardiomyocytes, where dithiothreitol was capable of reversing the effect of oxidation . Recently, some antioxidant phenol analogues were shown to suppress L-type Ca current in smooth muscle cells . The observed effects on smooth muscle (little change in kinetics and voltage dependence of activation with a clear reduction in current amplitude) closely resemble those obtained in the present study on skeletal muscle fibers.
Due to the diverse effects of oxidizing and reducing reagents, the effects of thymol can probably be explained only in part with its antioxidant action. As suggested by Fusi et al.  direct drug-protein interactions could also take place where thymol may interact with the inactivation machinery of these channels when exerting its inhibitory action. Indeed, thymol failed to modify the voltage dependence of activation of any of the ion currents studied, but caused acceleration of inactivation of the currents. Accordingly, cardiac IK current, which fails to inactivate upon sustained depolarization, showed only limited sensitivity to thymol . It should be noted, however, that due to the hydrophobic character of the molecule thymol may accumulate in the membrane and could also modify the local lipid environment of the channel protein. These additional unspecific lipid-interactions may account for the fractional values of the Hill coefficients, but not for the differences observed in the thymol-induced block of Ca and K currents.
Since thymol is a commonly applied constituent of mouth wash, herbal complexes, and dental medication, its overdose resulting in intoxication (accidental swallowing by children or intentional ingestion by adults in case of suicide) may not be ruled out. For instance, several types of mouth wash contain 1% thymol in 200 ml volume. Ingestion of 200 ml 1% thymol solution will build up approximately 300 μM concentration in the whole body fluid, calculating with equal distribution of thymol in extracellular and intracellular body water compartments. This is in the range of the present study, indicating that serious alterations in Ca and K currents can be anticipated in case of thymol intoxication.
It has probably more clinical relevance that thymol is used to stabilize liquid halothane when applied for in vitro as well as in vivo studies, or in case of general anesthesia during surgery. Although the concentration of thymol is relatively low (0.01 %) in the original halothane-thymol mixture , its concentration may dramatically increase due to accumulation of thymol in the vaporizer. Indeed, halothane was shown to block Ca and K currents in cardiac [18–20] and skeletal  muscle membranes. These effects, obtained with liquid halothane (containing also thymol) in various preparations, strongly resemble the present results and also those of Magyar et al. obtained in canine cardiac cells with thymol . It is possible, therefore, that the suppressive effect of halothane on Ca and K currents are – at least in part – attributable to the concomitant presence of thymol in the superfusate.
Isolation of rat skeletal muscle fibers
Single skeletal muscle fibers were isolated enzymatically from the extensor digitorum communis muscles of rats and mounted into a double Vaseline gap chamber as described earlier . Briefly, rats of either sex were anesthetized and killed by cervical dislocation. The muscles were removed and were treated with collagenase (Sigma, Type I) for 60–90 min at 37°C. After dissociation, fibers were allowed to rest for at least 20 min and only those were used that showed no signs of membrane damage. The selected fiber was transferred into a recording chamber filled with Relaxing solution containing K-glutamate 150, MgCl2 2, HEPES 10 and EGTA 1 mM. The fiber segments in the open-end pools were permeabilized using 0.01% saponin. After completing the permeabilization the solutions were exchanged to Internal solution in the open-end pools (containing Cs-glutamate 120, MgCl2 5.5, Na2-ATP 5, Na-phosphocreatine 10, glucose 10, HEPES 5 and EGTA 5 mM) and to External solution in the middle pool (containing TEA-CH3SO3 140, MgCl2 2, HEPES 5, tetrodotoxin 0.0003 and 3,4-diaminopyridine 1 mM). For Ca current measurements 5 mM CaCl2 was added to the External solution and TEA-CH3SO3 was reduced appropriately, while the EGTA concentration in the Internal solution was increased to 20 mM with reducing Cs-glutamate. For K current measurements the Internal solution contained 120 mM K-glutamate instead of Cs-glutamate and the External solution was modified to have 140 mM N-methyl-D-glucamine instead of TEA and 4 mM MgCl2 instead of 2 mM. All solutions were adjusted to pH 7.2 and 300 mOsm.
The experimental set-up and data acquisition have been described in detail in our earlier report . Fibers were voltage-clamped and the holding potential was set to -100 mV. All experiments were performed at 16–18°C. Ca current was measured using 800 ms long depolarizing voltage pulses exploring the -50 to +60 mV voltage range. The linear capacitive component was subtracted by applying 20 mV hyperpolarizing pulses . K current was measured using 100 or 200 ms long depolarizing voltage steps exploring the -80 to +40 mV voltage range.
Concentration dependent effects of thymol on ionic currents were determined using the Hill equation:
I = 1 - 1 / (1 + (k50 / [thymol]) n), (Eqn. 1)
where k50 is the concentration where the effect is half maximal and n is the Hill coefficient.
The peak current versus voltage relationship for ICa was fitted with:
I = (Vm - VCa) * G(Vm), (Eqn. 2)
where Vm is transmembrane potential, VCa is the equilibrium potential estimated for Ca, and G(Vm) is the voltage dependence of the conductance given as:
G(Vm) = Gmax / (1 + exp (- (Vm - V') / k)), (Eqn. 3)
where Gmax is the maximal conductance, V' is the potential where the conductance is half of Gmax, and k is the slope factor. All currents and the maximal conductance were normalized to fiber capacitance to take the size of the individual fibers into account.
The activation kinetics of the K current was fitted with the usual m4 kinetics:
IK(t) = A * (1 - exp (- (t - t0) / T)) 4, (Eqn. 4)
where A is the amplitude of the current, T is the time constant of the activation and t0 is the delay.
All values presented are arithmetic means ± SEM. Student's t test for paired data was applied following ANOVA to determine statistical significance. Differences were considered significant when the P value was less than 0.05.
The entire investigation conforms with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals published by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH publication No. 85-23, revised 1996), and was approved by the local ethical committee.
Financial support for the studies was obtained from the Hungarian Ministry of Health (ETT-52/2000, ETT-495/2000), the Hungarian Ministry of Education (FKFP-0193/2001) and Hungarian Research Found (T043182, T034894, TS040773).
- Aeschbach R, Loliger J, Scott BC, Murcia A, Butler J, Halliwell B, Aruoma OI: Antioxidant actions of thymol, carvacrol, 6-gingerol, zingerone and hydroxytyrosol. Food Chem Toxicol. 1994, 32: 31-36. 10.1016/0278-6915(84)90033-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee S, Tsao R, Peterson C, Coats JR: Insecticidal activity of monoterpenoids to western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae), and house fly (Diptera: Muscidae). J Econom Entom. 1997, 90: 883-892.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Manou L, Bouillard L, Devleeschouwer MJ, Barel AO: Evaluation of the preservative properties of Thymus vulgaris essential oil in topically applied formulations under a challenge test. J Appl Microbiol. 1998, 84: 368-376. 10.1046/j.1365-2672.1998.00353.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Twetman S, Hallgren A, Petersson LG: Effect of antibacterial varnish on mutant streptococci in plaque form enamel adjacent to orthodontic appliances. Caries Res. 1995, 29: 188-191.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shapiro S, Guggenheim B: The action of thymol on oral bacteria. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 1995, 10: 241-246.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ogaard B, Larsson E, Glans R, Henriksson T, Birkhed D: Antimicrobial effect of a chlorhexidine-thymol varnish (Cervitec) in orthodontic patients. A prospective, randomized clinical trial. J Orofac Orthop. 1997, 58: 206-213.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Skold K, Twetman S, Hallgren A, Yucel-Lindberg T, Modeer T: Effect of a chlorhexidine/thymol-containing varnish on prostaglandin E2 levels in gingival crevicular fluid. Eur J Oral Sci. 1998, 106: 571-575. 10.1046/j.0909-8836.1998.eos106106.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yucel-Lindberg T, Twetman S, Skold-Larsson K, Modeer T: Effect of an antibacterial dental varnish on the levels of prostanoids, leukotriene B4, and interleukin-1 beta in gingival crevicular fluid. Acta Odontol Scand. 1999, 57: 23-27. 10.1080/000163599429066.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Magyar J, Szentandrássy N, Bányász T, Fülöp L, Varró A, Nánási PP: Effects of thymol on calcium and potassium currents in canine and human ventricular cardiomyocytes. Br J Pharmacol. 2002, 136: 330-338.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Reeve HL, Weir EK, Nelson DP, Peterson DA, Archer SL: Opposing effects of oxidants and antioxidants on K+ channel activity and tone in rat vascular tissue. Exp Physiol. 1995, 80: 825-834.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fusi F, Saponara S, Gagov H, Sgaragli G: Effects of some sterically hindered phenols on whole-cell Ca2+ current of guinea-pig gastric fundus smooth muscle cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2001, 132: 1326-1332.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Feldmeyer D, Melzer W, Pohl B, Zollner P: Fast gating kinetics of the slow Ca2+ current in cut skeletal muscle fibres of the frog. J Physiol (Lond). 1990, 425: 347-367.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Varró A, Baláti B, Iost N, Takács J, Virág L, Lathrop DA, Lengyel Cs, Tálosi L, Papp JGy: The role of the delayed rectifier component IKs in dog ventricular muscle and Purkinje fibre repolarization. J Physiol (Lond). 2000, 523: 67-81.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Campbell DL, Stamler JS, Strauss HC: Redox modulation of L-type calcium channels in ferret ventricular myocytes. Dual mechanism regulation by nitric oxid and s-nitrosothiols. J Gen Physiol. 1996, 108: 277-293.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fearon IM, Palmer ACV, Balmforth AJ, Ball SG, Varadi G, Peers C: Modulation of recombinant human cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel á1C subunits by redox agents and hypoxia. J Physiol (Lond). 1999, 514: 629-637.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lacampagne A, Duittoz A, Bolanos P, Pieneu N, Argibay JA: Effect of sulfhydryl oxidation on ionic and gating currents associated with L-type calcium channels in isolated guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. Cardiovasc Res. 1995, 30: 799-806. 10.1016/0008-6363(95)00128-X.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Thompson RD, Carlson M: Determination of thymol in halothane anaesthetic preparations by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Pharmac Biomed Analysis. 1989, 7: 1199-1206. 10.1016/0731-7085(89)80055-X.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hirota K, Ito Y, Masuda A, Momose Y: Effects of halothane on membrane ionic currents in guinea pig atrial and ventricular myocytes. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1989, 33: 239-244.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Baum VC, Wetzel GT, Klitzner TS: Effects of halothane and ketamine on activation and inactivation of myocardial calcium current. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1994, 23: 799-805.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Davies LA, Hopkins PM, Boyett MR, Harrison SM: Effects of halothane on the transient outward K+ current in rat ventricular myocytes. Br J Pharmacol. 2000, 131: 223-230. 10.1046/j.1365-2125.2000.00162.x.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lamb GD, Hopkinson KC, Denborough MA: Calcium currents and asymmetric charge movement in malignant hyperpyrexia. Muscle Nerve. 1989, 12: 135-140.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Szentesi P, Jacquemond V, Kovács L, Csernoch L: Intramembrane charge movement and sarcoplasmic calcium release in enzymatically isolated mammalian skeletal muscle fibers. J Physiol (Lond). 1997, 505: 371-384.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Csernoch L, Szentesi P, Sárközi S, Szegedi Cs, Jóna I: Effects of tetracaine on sarcoplasmic calcium release in mammalian skeletal muscle fibers. J Physiol (Lond). 1999, 515: 843-857.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Szentesi P, Kovács L, Csernoch L: Effects of dantrolene on steps of excitation-contraction coupling in mammalian skeletal muscle fibers. J Gen Physiol. 2001, 118: 355-375. 10.1085/jgp.118.4.355.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original URL.