Effects of increasing doses of clozapine administered intrathecally (i.t.) or intracerebroventricuarly (i.c.v.) on bladder capacity, micturition volume and residual volume. For comparison purposes, the effects of intravenous admnistration of clozapine (data from ) are also shown. Doses are presented in a log scale, with vehicle marked as V for the results of the present experiments, and (V) for vehicle in the i.v. doses. A) Bladder capacity increased only after 50 nmoles of clozapine either i.t. or i.c.v.; B) Micturition volume decreased after clozapine i.t. or i.c.v. However, 0.5 nmoles of clozapine i.c.v. significantly reduced the micturition volume and this effect was also significantly different from that obtained after the same dose i.t. C) Residual volume was increased by clozapine i.t. or i.c.v. All doses of clozapine i.c.v. produced significant increases in the residual volume, whereas only 5 and 50 nmoles i.t. produced significant results. * = p < 0.05; ** = p < 0.01; # = p < 0.05 when compared to the effects of the same dose, different route.