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  1. Oxidative stress is involved in cisplatin-nephrotoxicity. However, it has not completely established if reactive nitrogen species and nitrosative stress are involved in this experimental model. The purpose of ...

    Authors: Yolanda I Chirino, Rogelio Hernández-Pando and José Pedraza-Chaverrí

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2004 4:20

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Green tea is widely consumed in Asian countries and is becoming increasingly popular in Western countries. Epidemiologically, it has been suggested that green tea consumption prevents type 2 diabetes. The pres...

    Authors: Hiroshi Tsuneki, Mitsuyo Ishizuka, Miki Terasawa, Jin-Bin Wu, Toshiyasu Sasaoka and Ikuko Kimura

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2004 4:18

    Content type: Research article

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  3. 3-guanidinopropionic acid derivatives reduce body weight in obese, diabetic mice. We have assessed whether one of these analogues, the aminoguanidine carboxylate BVT.12777, opens KATP channels in rat insulinoma c...

    Authors: Jackie M Kinsella, Hilary A Laidlaw, Teresa Tang, Jenni Harvey, Calum Sutherland and Michael LJ Ashford

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2004 4:17

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Gabapentin and pregabalin have wide-ranging therapeutic actions, and are structurally related to the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. Gabapentin, pregablin and GABA can all modulate voltage-activated Ca2+ channe...

    Authors: David McClelland, Rhian M Evans, Louise Barkworth, Duncan J Martin and Roderick H Scott

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2004 4:14

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Epidermal keratinocytes continuously proliferate and differentiate to form the mechanical and water permeability barrier that makes terrestrial life possible. In certain skin diseases, these processes become d...

    Authors: Wendy B Bollag, Xiaofeng Zhong and Sarah Josephson

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2004 4:13

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Mast cell (MC)-derived serine proteases have been implicated in a variety of inflammatory processes. We have previously shown that rat peritoneal MC (PMC) express mRNA for protease activated receptor 2 (PAR-2)...

    Authors: Hashem N Alshurafa, Grant R Stenton, John L Wallace, Morley D Hollenberg, A Dean Befus and Harissios Vliagoftis

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2004 4:12

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Bell-shaped and terraced dose-response relations have been observed in single ligand application for enzymes, carriers, transporters, G protein-coupled receptors as well as for other receptive units. It seems ...

    Authors: Niels Bindslev

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2004 4:11

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Type 4 phosphodiesterase (PDE4) inhibitors have been shown to stimulate bone formation in vivo and to stimulate osteoblastic differentiation in vitro. As one possible mechanism for the stimulation of bone formati...

    Authors: Andrew Scutt, Norbert Beier and Claus Fittschen

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2004 4:10

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Cissus sicyoides (Vitaceae) is a medicinal plant popularly known in Brazil as "cipó-pucá, anil-trepador, cortina, and insulina". The plant is used in several diseases, including rheumatism, epilepsy, stroke and a...

    Authors: Glauce SB Viana, Ana Carolina C Medeiros, Ana Michelle R Lacerda, L Kalyne AM Leal, Tiago G Vale and F José de Abreu Matos

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2004 4:9

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Gemcitabine is an analogue of deoxycytidine with activity against several solid tumors. In order to elucidate the mechanisms by which tumor cells become resistant to gemcitabine, we developed the resistant sub...

    Authors: Carlos María Galmarini, Marilyn L Clarke, Lars Jordheim, Cheryl L Santos, Emeline Cros, John R Mackey and Charles Dumontet

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2004 4:8

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Since caspases are key executioners of apoptosis in cases of severe diseases including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease, and viral infection diseases such as AID...

    Authors: Atsushi Yoshimori, Ryoko Takasawa and Sei-ichi Tanuma

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2004 4:7

    Content type: Methodology article

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  12. With the use of cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells, we have previously described a number of cellular responses to oxidative stress caused by H2O2. We also demonstrated that the cytotoxicity caused b...

    Authors: Tarun K Garg and Jason Y Chang

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2004 4:6

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Pancreatic cholesterol esterase has three proposed functions in the intestine: 1) to control the bioavailability of cholesterol from dietary cholesterol esters; 2) to contribute to incorporation of cholesterol...

    Authors: John E Heidrich, Linda M Contos, Lucy A Hunsaker, Lorraine M Deck and David L Vander Jagt

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2004 4:5

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Evidence suggests that gender differences exist in the severity of many immunological diseases and their response to glucocorticosteroid treatment. In this report, we have used a murine model of ovalbumin-indu...

    Authors: Randolph Corteling and Alexandre Trifilieff

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2004 4:4

    Content type: Research article

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  15. In previous studies, the relaxant, anticholinergic (functional antagonism) and antihistaminic effects of Nigella sativa have been demonstrated on guinea pig tracheal chains. To elucidate the other mechanisms resp...

    Authors: Mohammad H Boskabady, Batool Shirmohammadi, Parastoo Jandaghi and Sahar Kiani

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2004 4:3

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Extracts of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TWHF), a traditional Chinese herb, have been reported to show efficacy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Since RA is not only characterized by inflammation ...

    Authors: Natsuko Kusunoki, Ryuta Yamazaki, Hidero Kitasato, Moroe Beppu, Haruhito Aoki and Shinichi Kawai

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2004 4:2

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Oxidative stress is the major etiopathological factor in adriamycin-induced cardiotoxicity. Relatively low amounts of endogenous antioxidant makes the heart vulnerable to oxidative stress-induced damage. Chron...

    Authors: Sumanta Mukherjee, Sanjay Kumar Banerjee, Mohua Maulik, Amit Kumar Dinda, Kewal K Talwar and Subir Kumar Maulik

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2003 3:16

    Content type: Research article

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  18. β2-Adrenergic receptors (β2AR) play important regulatory roles in a variety of cells and organ systems and are important therapeutic targets in the treatment of airway and cardiovascular disease. Prolonged use of...

    Authors: Stacie M Jones, F Charles Hiller, Sandie E Jacobi, Susan K Foreman, Laura M Pittman and Lawrence E Cornett

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2003 3:15

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The concept of spontaneous- or constitutive-activity has become widely accepted and verified for numerous G protein-coupled receptors and this ligand-independent activity is also acknowledged to play a role in...

    Authors: Karl Brillet, Brigitte L Kieffer and Dominique Massotte

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2003 3:14

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Amino acids in the β subunit contribute to the action of general anaesthetics on GABAA receptors. We have now characterized the phenotypic effect of two β subunit mutations in the most abundant GABAA receptor sub...

    Authors: Roberta Siegwart, Karin Krähenbühl, Sachar Lambert and Uwe Rudolph

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2003 3:13

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Thymol is widely used as a general antiseptic and antioxidant compound in the medical practice and industry, and also as a stabilizer to several therapeutic agents, including halothane. Thus intoxication with ...

    Authors: Norbert Szentandrássy, Péter Szentesi, János Magyar, Péter P Nánási and László Csernoch

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2003 3:9

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Overproduction of free radical species has been shown to occur in brain tissues after ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, most of free radical scavengers known to antagonize oxidative damage (e.g. superoxide...

    Authors: Vincenzo Mollace, Michelangelo Iannone, Carolina Muscoli, Ernesto Palma, Teresa Granato, Andrea Modesti, Robert Nisticò, Domenicantonio Rotiroti and Daniela Salvemini

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2003 3:8

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Flobufen (F) is an original nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with one center of chirality. 4-Dihydroflobufen (DHF), compound with two chiral centers, is the main metabolite of F in microsomes and cytosol in...

    Authors: Radim Kral, Lenka Skalova, Barbora Szotakova, Jakub Velik, Ladislava Schroterova, Yogeeta N Babu and Vladimir Wsol

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2003 3:5

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Extracellular nucleotides play an important role in the regulation of vascular tone and may be involved in cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoidal haemorrhage. This study was designed to characterise the contr...

    Authors: Malin Malmsjö, Mingyan Hou, William Pendergast, David Erlinge and Lars Edvinsson

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2003 3:4

    Content type: Research article

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  25. This study was conducted to elucidate if nitric oxide is released by the porcine jejunal mucosa upon selective stimulation of AT2 receptors and the possible involvement of iNOS, and to investigate the presence...

    Authors: Sara Ewert, Mats Laesser, Bernalt Johansson, Mathias Holm, Anders Aneman and Lars Fandriks

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2003 3:2

    Content type: Research article

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  26. As a folk remedy, Anethum graveolens seed (dill) is used for some gastrointestinal ailments. We aimed to evaluate aqueous and ethanolic extracts of anti-ulcer and acute toxicity effects of the Anethum graveolens ...

    Authors: Hossein Hosseinzadeh, Gholam_Reza Karimi and Maryam Ameri

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2002 2:21

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Several studies have shown that muscarinic cholinergic agonists cause antinociception in humans and animals when given by both spinal and non-spinal parenteral routes. It is uncertain which subtype of muscarin...

    Authors: Michael Lograsso, Ray Nadeson and Colin S Goodchild

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2002 2:20

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Swimming behaviors in the forced swimming test have been reported to be depressed by stressors. Since toxic convulsion-inducing drugs related to dopamine [cocaine (COC)], benzodiazepine [methyl 6,7-dimethoxy-4...

    Authors: Tamaki Hayase, Yoshiko Yamamoto and Keiichi Yamamoto

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2002 2:19

    Content type: Research article

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  29. S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and S-nitroso-N-acetlypenicillamine (SNAP) are two of the most common sources of nitric oxide (NO) in the biomedical field. Vitamin C has been known to accelerate the decomposition ...

    Authors: Donovan McGrowder, Dalip Ragoobirsingh and Tara Dasgupta

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2002 2:18

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the biochemical and pathological changes associated with myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury (IRI). The need to identify agents with a potential for preventing such da...

    Authors: Sanjay Kumar Banerjee, Amit Kumar Dinda, Subhash Chandra Manchanda and Subir Kumar Maulik

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2002 2:16

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The effects of lindane, a gamma-isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane, were studied on transmembrane potentials and currents of frog atrial heart muscle using intracellular microelectrodes and the whole cell voltage...

    Authors: Martin-Pierre Sauviat, Anthony Colas and Nicole Pages

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2002 2:15

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has multiple physiologic roles mediated by G protein coupled receptors designated E-prostanoid, or "EP" receptors. Evidence supports an important role for the EP2 receptor in regulating fe...

    Authors: Youfei Guan, Brett A Stillman, Yahua Zhang, André Schneider, Osamu Saito, Linda S Davis, Reyadh Redha, Richard M Breyer and Matthew D Breyer

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2002 2:14

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Retinoids are very potent inducers of cellular differentiation and apoptosis, and are efficient anti-tumoral agents. Synthetic retinoids are designed to restrict their toxicity and side effects, mostly by incr...

    Authors: Céline Brand, Pascaline Ségard, Pascal Plouvier, Pierre Formstecher, Pierre-Marie Danzé and Philippe Lefebvre

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2002 2:13

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Peperomia pellucida is popularly known as coraçãozinho in the Brazilian northeast and is used in the treatment of abscesses, furuncles, and conjunctivitis. Our work aimed to determine the term of the development ...

    Authors: Maria de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank, Ricardo Luiz Barros Oliveira, Sandra Santos Mendes, Paulo de Albuquerque Silva, Ângelo Roberto Antoniolli, Jeane Carvalho Vilar, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda Cavalcanti and Arie Fitzgerald Blank

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2002 2:12

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Leishmaniasis is a common parasitic disease in Southern Europe, caused by Leishmania infantum. The failures of current treatment with pentavalent antimonials are partially attributable to the emergence of antimon...

    Authors: Jaume Carrió and Montserrat Portús

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2002 2:11

    Content type: Research article

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  36. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) plays an important role in the metabolism of lipoproteins and fatty acids, and seems to protect against the development of atherosclerosis. To evaluate ...

    Authors: Antonia Tabernero, Kristina Schoonjans, Laurence Jesel, Irina Carpusca, Johan Auwerx and Ramaroson Andriantsitohaina

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2002 2:10

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The mechanisms by which alpha-2 adrenergic receptors are down-regulated following chronic exposure to agonist are not well understood. Interestingly, the human alpha-2C receptor does not down-regulate, whereas...

    Authors: Jean D Deupree, Claudia D Borgeson and David B Bylund

    Citation: BMC Pharmacology 2002 2:9

    Content type: Research article

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