Neuronal apoptosis by MCAO in rats (n = 8 in each group of different treatments). *The numbers of neuronal apoptosis cells (B) 4 days after MCAO injury was significantly (P < 0.05) increased for MCAO-injured animals treated with an i.v. dose of normal saline (1 mL/kg) compared with MCAO sham control. †The increased numbers of neuronal apoptosis cells 4 days after MCAO injury was significantly decreased for MCAO-injured animals treated with an i.v. dose of agmatine (100 mg/kg) compared with vehicle controls. The photomicrographs (A) illustrates a typical example for a sham-operated control, a vehicle-treated MCAO rat, and an agmatine-treated MCAO rat. A cell with NeuN-TUNEL double positive was recognized as a neuronal apoptosis cell.